# Mountains Midpoint Displacement¶ mountains_midpoint_displacement.py
 ``` 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201``` ```""" Mountains Midpoint Displacement Create a random mountain range. Original idea and some code from: https://bitesofcode.wordpress.com/2016/12/23/landscape-generation-using-midpoint-displacement/ If Python and Arcade are installed, this example can be run from the command line with: python -m arcade.examples.mountains_midpoint_displacement """ # Library imports import arcade import random import bisect SCREEN_WIDTH = 1200 SCREEN_HEIGHT = 700 SCREEN_TITLE = "Mountains Midpoint Displacement Example" # Iterative midpoint vertical displacement def midpoint_displacement(start, end, roughness, vertical_displacement=None, num_of_iterations=16): """ Given a straight line segment specified by a starting point and an endpoint in the form of [starting_point_x, starting_point_y] and [endpoint_x, endpoint_y], a roughness value > 0, an initial vertical displacement and a number of iterations > 0 applies the midpoint algorithm to the specified segment and returns the obtained list of points in the form points = [[x_0, y_0],[x_1, y_1],...,[x_n, y_n]] """ # Final number of points = (2^iterations)+1 if vertical_displacement is None: # if no initial displacement is specified set displacement to: # (y_start+y_end)/2 vertical_displacement = (start+end)/2 # Data structure that stores the points is a list of lists where # each sublist represents a point and holds its x and y coordinates: # points=[[x_0, y_0],[x_1, y_1],...,[x_n, y_n]] # | | | # point 0 point 1 point n # The points list is always kept sorted from smallest to biggest x-value points = [start, end] iteration = 1 while iteration <= num_of_iterations: # Since the list of points will be dynamically updated with the new computed # points after each midpoint displacement it is necessary to create a copy # of the state at the beginning of the iteration so we can iterate over # the original sequence. # Tuple type is used for security reasons since they are immutable in Python. points_tup = tuple(points) for i in range(len(points_tup)-1): # Calculate x and y midpoint coordinates: # [(x_i+x_(i+1))/2, (y_i+y_(i+1))/2] midpoint = list(map(lambda x: (points_tup[i][x]+points_tup[i+1][x])/2, [0, 1])) # Displace midpoint y-coordinate midpoint += random.choice([-vertical_displacement, vertical_displacement]) # Insert the displaced midpoint in the current list of points bisect.insort(points, midpoint) # bisect allows to insert an element in a list so that its order # is preserved. # By default the maintained order is from smallest to biggest list first # element which is what we want. # Reduce displacement range vertical_displacement *= 2 ** (-roughness) # update number of iterations iteration += 1 return points def fix_points(points): last_y = None last_x = None new_list = [] for point in points: x = int(point) y = int(point) if last_y is None or y != last_y: if last_y is None: last_x = x last_y = y x1 = last_x x2 = x y1 = last_y y2 = y new_list.append((x1, 0)) new_list.append((x1, y1)) new_list.append((x2, y2)) new_list.append((x2, 0)) last_x = x last_y = y x1 = last_x x2 = SCREEN_WIDTH y1 = last_y y2 = last_y new_list.append((x1, 0)) new_list.append((x1, y1)) new_list.append((x2, y2)) new_list.append((x2, 0)) return new_list def create_mountain_range(start, end, roughness, vertical_displacement, num_of_iterations, color_start): shape_list = arcade.ShapeElementList() layer_1 = midpoint_displacement(start, end, roughness, vertical_displacement, num_of_iterations) layer_1 = fix_points(layer_1) color_list = [color_start] * len(layer_1) lines = arcade.create_rectangles_filled_with_colors(layer_1, color_list) shape_list.append(lines) return shape_list class MyGame(arcade.Window): """ Main application class. """ def __init__(self, width, height, title): super().__init__(width, height, title) self.mountains = None arcade.set_background_color(arcade.color.WHITE) def setup(self): """ This, and any function with the arcade.decorator.init decorator, is run automatically on start-up. """ self.mountains = [] background = arcade.ShapeElementList() color1 = (195, 157, 224) color2 = (240, 203, 163) points = (0, 0), (SCREEN_WIDTH, 0), (SCREEN_WIDTH, SCREEN_HEIGHT), (0, SCREEN_HEIGHT) colors = (color1, color1, color2, color2) rect = arcade.create_rectangle_filled_with_colors(points, colors) background.append(rect) self.mountains.append(background) layer_4 = create_mountain_range([0, 350], [SCREEN_WIDTH, 320], 1.1, 250, 8, (158, 98, 204)) self.mountains.append(layer_4) layer_3 = create_mountain_range([0, 270], [SCREEN_WIDTH, 190], 1.1, 120, 9, (130, 79, 138)) self.mountains.append(layer_3) layer_2 = create_mountain_range([0, 180], [SCREEN_WIDTH, 80], 1.2, 30, 12, (68, 28, 99)) self.mountains.append(layer_2) layer_1 = create_mountain_range([250, 0], [SCREEN_WIDTH, 200], 1.4, 20, 12, (49, 7, 82)) self.mountains.append(layer_1) def on_draw(self): """ Render the screen. """ arcade.start_render() """ This is called every time we need to update our screen. About 60 times per second. Just draw things in this function, don't update where they are. """ # Call our drawing functions. for mountain_range in self.mountains: mountain_range.draw() def on_mouse_press(self, x, y, button, key_modifiers): """ Called when the user presses a mouse button. """ pass def main(): """ Main method """ window = MyGame(SCREEN_WIDTH, SCREEN_HEIGHT, SCREEN_TITLE) window.setup() arcade.run() if __name__ == "__main__": main() ```